Present and Past (Everyday and Yesterday)

  • Compare the following sentences:


  1. I drink milk everyday.
  2. He eats fresh fruits now.
  3. She sleeps soundly.
  4. I like science fiction.
  5. Father leaves for office at 9’o clock.
  6. I get up at 6’o clock every morning.
  7. I go to school by bus.
  8. My sister loves music.
  1. I drank a lot of coffee.
  2. He ate junk food earlier.
  3. She slept soundly.
  4. I liked comics.
  5. Father left for office at 9’o clock.
  6. I got up late yesterday.
  7. I went to school by car yesterday.
  8. My sister loved music.
  • The sentences in the first column show something that happens everyday, always, often, usually.
  • The sentences in the second column show something that happened in the past (yesterday, last week, last Sunday etc.).
  • Notice the use of Verbs in the two columns. We use the first form of Verb to talk about present and we use the second form of Verb to talk about past.


  • Study the following sentences:
  1. Arun runs fast.
  2. The old man walked slowly.
  3. The dog barked loudly.
  4. She spoke rudely.

The words fast, slowly, loudly and rudely add something to the meaning of the verbs runs, walked, barked and spoke. They tell us how actions are done. Such words are called Adverbs.

When we ask the question:

How does Arun run?

We get the answer –

Arun runs fast.

The word fast tells us how Arun runs. Therefore fast is an Adverb.

  • Now read these sentences:
  1.    Ben came late.
  2.    Sam gets up early.
  3.    They play chess everyday.
  4.    Reena will come tomorrow.


The words late, early, everyday and tomorrow add something to the meaning of the verbs came, gets up, play and will come. They tell us when the action is done. Such words are also called Adverbs.

  • Now read these sentences:
  1.  Please sit here.
  2. The students looked up.
  3. The sky is above.
  4. The books are there.

The words here, up, above and there add something to the meaning of the verbs sit, looked, is and are. They tell us where the action is done. Such words are also called Adverbs.

  • Look at the sentences given below carefully:
  1. Rose is a very beautiful flower.
  2. I like Mary because she is so pretty.
  3. These oranges are too sour.
  4. These mangoes are almost ripe.

The words very, so, too and almost add something to the meaning of the adjectives beautiful, pretty, sour and ripe. They show the degree of the quality expressed by the adjective. Such words which add something more to the meaning of adjectives are also called Adverbs.  When we ask:

How beautiful or how pretty………?

We get the answer:

Very beautiful/so pretty.

  • Now study the following  sentences carefully:
  1. Mohan runs very quickly.
  2. He walks rather slowly.
  3. She sings quite sweetly.
  4. He works too noisily.

In the above sentences the adverbs quickly, slowly, sweetly and noisily have words added to them – very, rather, quite and too. They too are Adverbs. They add to the meaning of other adverbs.

An Adverb is a word that adds to the meaning of verb, adjective or another adverb. It tells us how a thing is done, when it is done or where it is done.


Verbs – Doing words

  • Study the following sentences:
  1. The sun shines.
  2. Birds fly.
  3. Dogs bark.
  4. Fish swim in water.
  5. The horse runs fast.
  6. The spider spins a web.
  7. Rocky plays football.
  8. Shelly writes neatly.
  9. They study together.
  10. I eat healthy food.
  11. I go to school everyday.
  12. The cow gives us milk.
  13. They went for a picnic.
  14. The horse kicked the cat.
  15. 15.   The snake bit the boy.


The bold italicized words in the above sentences are doing words.

They tell us what people, animals or things do.

They express actions.

These words are called Verbs.

A Verb is a word which says something about a person or thing.

The Verb is the most important word in a sentence.

We cannot make a sentence without a Verb.


  • A Verb is not always one word. It often consists of more than one word; as,
  1. Alice is dancing.
  2. The students are reading.
  3. They will come tomorrow.
  4. I have found the keys.
  5. He was bitten by a snake.



  • Now read the following  sentences:
  1. I am a student.
  2. The cap is blue.
  3. The oranges are sweet.
  4. He was a leader.
  5. They were happy.
  6. Mary has a doll.
  7. I have a red pen.


Here, the words am, is, are, was, were, has, have, help to say something.

These words are also called Verbs.